Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor (TGCT) – Types, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor - TGCT

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor (TGCT) is a group of rare tumors that consists of the Synovium, bursae, and tendon sheath. It is a kind of deadly cancerous disease. It forms in the joints.

It can cause disability and damage to the joints.


Types of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

Tenosynovial giant cell tumors can be divided into three types, as given below.

  1. Diffuse Giant Cell Tumors (DGCT)

It occurs in the fingers as well as along the tendon sheaths of the foot and ankle.

It multiplies in the local region or Synovium, which affects the knee and its soft tissue.

It is a type of PVNS.

Its lesions are rare because the tumors are located in the temporal fossa and endanger the auditory canal and skill base.

D-GCTS mainly occurs in weight-bearing joints like knee, ankle, and foot. In contrast, non-weight bearing joints are afflicted with tiny lesions.

Recent Case Report

According to the medical experts, It has been observed that DGCT occurs especially to the middle-aged women.

Care of DGCT has revealed recently in which a woman age about 49, Named Anuradha.

Indeed she was working in a multinational company as an Assistant Manager.

Everything was going on well smoothly.

She was happy and quite satisfied with her job.

But one day, it happened something incredible to her.

She came from the office in the evening, and she started having pain in her joints.

So she took a pain killer and slept after dinner.

When she woke up in the morning the next day, she found swelling in the joints and great difficulty in the movement.

She was shocked to see this physical suffering which occurred to her all of a sudden, so she went to the general practitioner for the treatment. She was taking the pills of that Doctor, but those medicines were not taking effect at all.

After a week, she started finding difficulty in eating food also.

Her mouth was so congested to chew the food comfortably.

Then she realized that she was inflicted with some dangerous disease.

She spent 20 days going to the general practitioner unnecessarily.

When the intensity of DGCT increased, then she went to the Oncologist, she was admitted to the hospital.

Her x-ray was taken, and in that, a widened joint space and invasive involvement in the adjacent bone cortex was found., along with Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome [TMDS].

Besides this, the temporal bone was damaged, and soft tissue space-occupying lesions led to buckling division.

After that, she had to undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

After a few cycles of treatment, Anuradha was cured.

She is living these days comfortably. She started her daily activities s usual.


  1. Tenosynovial Localized Giant Cell Tumor

There are localized and diffuse forms that can be noticed in this Tenosynovial Localized Giant Cell Tumour [TLGCT] indeed. The localized form is generally found or the joint.

It is an oppressive tumor emerging from the synovia of fibrous tissue conserving the joints. Initially, swelling is cropped up without pain one the tumor grows our time gradually.

According to the medical experts, Tenosynovial localized giant cell tumor is born to the person between the ages of 20 to 40 years.


  1. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

It consists of inflammation and overgrowth of the joint living.

It is also called an intra-articular giant cell tumor.

It can occur in the ankle, shoulder, elbow, hand, and foot or along with the lives of the joint.

Swelling is cropped up, and the growth of external bodies takes place.

Besides this, it reduces the range of motion.


Symptoms of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

The patient may experience the symptoms as given below:

  • The person may experience swelling or lump in the joint.
  • Functional impairment takes place.
  • The person may experience a reduced range of motion.
  • Joint instability takes place.
  • Stiffness of the joint can be noticed.
  • The person may experience pain and inflammation in the nearest joint.
  • Joint destruction can be seen.
  • The patient may experience limited movement in the nearest joint.
  • Enormous fluid collected on the affected bone or in the nearest joint.
  • Invisible mass/mass of abnormal tissue can be found/noticed.
  • A bone fracture can be seen.
  • The person may experience warmness of the skin on the joint.
  • When the person moves the back and forth, he or she may experience popping, catching, or locking sensation in the joint.
  • The person may find uneasiness due to pain and instability.
  • The person experiences himself or herself within the uncomforted zone due to suffering.
  • The person may experience groaning and moaning.


Causes of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

According to the medical experts, the exact cause of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor (TGCT) could not be ascertained so far.

However, based on their long years’ treatment practice, there are some specific causes as given below.

  • Recruitment of immune cells, particularly in macrophages.
  • TGCT is born due to changes in a chromosome. This process is a known translocation. Which contains proteins and protein attracts cells with CSFI, and these cell leads to form the tumor.
  • It can also be due to overgrowth of the soft tissue of the joint due to long term injury or damage/excess use.


Treatment in Conjunction with Dos and Don’t

The procedure can be given to the patient based on the condition of the patient, like age, health, and medical history.

  • Radiation or Chemotherapy is recommended to the patient.
  • Surgery is recommended for necessary treatment.
  • Physical therapy can be done to regain mobility and strength.
  • All the medications and therapies are done to meet with the tolerance or balance capacity of the patient.
  • Consent of the patient is taken for doing any therapy or surgery.
  • The patient is treated according to the intensity of the disease.
  • If the condition of the patient seems to be severe, then he or she has to undergo the amputation process.
  • Bone reconstruction can be done.
  • Bone grafting can be done.
  • The patient can be cured within the expected duration of the medical treatment, according to the Doctor.
  • The patient has to be hospitalized for a specified period.
  • The patient has to take some necessary precautions after being discharged from the hospital.
  • The patient has to follow the instructions about the activities as long as he or she undergoes treatment. Otherwise, it may prove dangerous or life-threatening to the patient.
  • The patient must take rest as much as possible during the treatment or till consistency.
  • The patient must take medicines on time to take effect or recovery. He or she should not skip the medications. Otherwise, it may delay to get improvement or deteriorate the condition of the patient.
  • The patient should be optimistic about his well-being.



Tenosynovial giant cell tumor is a life-threatening disease.

It is joint related ailment like knee, elbow, hand, and foot.

The life of the patient becomes worse due to suffering.

Hence the patient must go to Doctor without any delay if he or she is inflicted with tenosynovial giant cell tumor.

Otherwise, the intensity of the disease may be increased due to the negligence or recklessness of the patient.

The patient must keep one thing in mind that “Health is Wealth.” The price of the physical organ is more than crores of rupees.

Hence the proverb goes on, “Healthy body captures all the joy and happiness of the world.”


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