The Surprising Link Between Diabetes and Blindness: What You Need to Know.

Photo by Nataliya Vaitkevich


Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. One of the most common complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, which can cause vision loss or blindness. This article will discuss how diabetes affects the eyes and the available treatment options for diabetic retinopathy.

You can also read our post about: Understanding and Managing Diabetes: A Comprehensive Guide for the General Public

Early Signs of Diabetes

Diabetes affects the way the body processes glucose (sugar). Left untreated can lead to several serious health complications, including eye problems. Recognizing the early signs of diabetes can help you take steps to manage the condition and reduce your risk of complications.

Some of the most common early signs of diabetes include:

  • Increased thirst and urination: When your blood sugar levels are high, your body tries to eliminate the excess sugar by flushing it out in the urine. This can lead to increased thirst and the need to urinate more frequently.
  • Fatigue: High blood sugar levels can cause fatigue, as your body has to work harder to process the sugar in your bloodstream.
  • Hunger: The body cannot use glucose for energy as it should, which can cause feelings of hunger.
  • Weight loss: Despite increased hunger, some people with diabetes may lose weight because the body cannot effectively use glucose for energy.
  • Blurred vision: High blood sugar levels can cause fluid to be pulled from the lenses of your eyes, leading to blurred vision.
  • Slow healing of cuts and wounds: Diabetes can affect the body’s ability to heal properly, making it more difficult for cuts and wounds to heal.
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet: High blood sugar levels can damage the nerves, leading to numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.

You must speak with your healthcare provider if you are experiencing any of these symptoms. They can perform a blood test to check blood sugar levels and diagnose diabetes if necessary.

It is essential to be aware of the early signs and take steps to manage the condition if you are diagnosed with diabetes.

How Does Diabetes Affect the Eyes?

Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This damage can lead to the formation of new blood vessels that are weak and can easily leak. As a result, the retina can become swollen and distorted, leading to vision loss.

Diabetes can also cause cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens, and Glaucoma, a condition in which the pressure inside the eye increases and can cause damage to the optic nerve.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that affects the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. High blood sugar levels can cause the blood vessels in the retina to become damaged, leading to the formation of new, abnormal blood vessels. These new blood vessels are fragile and can easily bleed, causing vision loss.

Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy

The early stages of diabetic retinopathy may not cause any symptoms. However, as the condition progresses, you may experience:

  • Blurred vision
  • Fluctuating vision
  • Dark or empty areas in your vision
  • Difficulty seeing at night
  • A need for brighter light when reading

Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy

The risk of developing diabetic retinopathy increases with the duration of diabetes and the severity of blood sugar control. Other risk factors include:

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Pregnancy (in women with diabetes)
  • Smoking
  • Lack of regular eye exams

Can Diabetic Retinopathy Be Cured?

Currently, there is no cure for diabetic retinopathy. However, early detection and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and prevent vision loss.


Cataracts are a clouding of the eye’s lens, a common complication of diabetes. High blood sugar levels can cause damage to the protein in the eye’s lens, leading to the formation of cataracts. Cataracts can cause blurred vision and sensitivity to glare, making it difficult to see in bright light.

Symptoms of Cataracts

This cloudiness can cause several symptoms:

  • Including blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to glare 
  • Difficulty seeing in bright light.

Symptoms of cataracts can vary depending on the severity of the condition. In the early stages, cataracts may cause mild blurring or cloudy vision. As the disease progresses, the cloudiness can become more pronounced. It can make it difficult to see fine details, especially in low or bright sunlight. Some people may also experience glare or halos around lights, making driving or reading difficult.

Risk Factors for Cataracts

People who have had diabetes for an extended period are also at a higher risk for developing cataracts. Additionally, other factors can also increase the risk of cataracts, such as:

  • Smoking, 
  • Prolonged exposure to UV radiation
  • Hypertension 
  • High blood pressure 

Can Cataracts Be Cured?

Cataracts cannot be cured, but they can be treated. The most common treatment is surgery. During cataract surgery, the cloudy lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens. This procedure is usually done on an outpatient basis and is generally very safe and effective. Cataract surgery is typically covered by insurance and is considered one of the most common and successful surgeries performed in the United States. 


Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders that can damage the optic nerve, leading to vision loss. People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing Glaucoma, especially if they have high blood pressure or a family history of the condition. Glaucoma can cause vision loss that is not reversible, so early detection and treatment are crucial.

Symptoms of Glaucoma

  • Early stages of Glaucoma may not have any noticeable symptoms
  • As the condition progresses, symptoms may include:
    • Loss of peripheral vision
    • Blurred vision
    • Seeing halos around lights
    • Severe eye pain

Risk Factors for Glaucoma

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Family history of Glaucoma
  • Age (increased risk for people over 60)
  • Being of African or Hispanic descent

Can Glaucoma be cured?

  • Unfortunately, Glaucoma is a chronic condition, and there is no cure. However, early detection and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and prevent vision loss. Medications and surgery can be used to lower the pressure in the eye and slow the damage to the optic nerve.

Prevention and Treatment

Diabetes is a serious health condition that can have a devastating impact on your vision. Fortunately, there are some simple steps you can take to help prevent eye problems caused by diabetes:

  • Control Your Blood Glucose: Your healthcare provider will guide you on maintaining stable blood sugar levels to avoid diabetic eye diseases.
  • Monitor Your Blood Pressure and Cholesterol: High levels of both can cause or worsen eye problems related to diabetes, so your doctor must check these regularly as advised by your doctor.
  • Quit Smoking: Smoking damages blood vessels, including the ones in your eyes, so it’s imperative to quit to protect your vision.
  • Shield Yourself from UV Rays: Wearing high-quality sunglasses can protect your eyes from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays and slow the progression of cataracts.

Additionally, you can prevent eye problems caused by diabetes by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and administering medication as prescribed by a healthcare provider. 

Regular eye exams are crucial for early detection to allow treatment without delay.

Although limited, some treatment options exist when detected. It is essential not to delay treatment as it can help prevent vision loss and preserve eyesight. Some of the treatment options include:

  • Laser therapy: This treatment uses a laser to seal leaking blood vessels and reduce swelling in the retina.
  • Injections: Medications can be injected into the eye to reduce the growth of new blood vessels and decrease inflammation.
  • Surgery: In advanced cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the cloudy lens caused by cataracts or to lower the pressure inside the eye caused by Glaucoma.


Remember, prevention is always better than cure. Good management of diabetes, including strict control of blood glucose, a healthy diet, regular exercise and lifestyle choices, is crucial for preserving your vision. So please don’t wait until it’s too late. Take control of your health today!

Sharing is caring! Your love and support motivates us!

Welcome! 👋
I hope you find what you're looking for

Stay informed with our latest articles delivered to your inbox!

We don’t spam! Read our privacy policy for more info